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Discover the best of shopping and entertainment with Amazon Prime. Prime members enjoy FREE Delivery on millions of eligible domestic and international items, in addition to exclusive access to movies, TV shows, and more. His collection, which was published in Berlin in with the title 40 Freimaurer Lieder, was intended for use at the dinners of German and French lodges. It is dedicated to Prince Frederick William of Prussia.
A large number of the songs are identical with those of the Copenhagen collection mentioned above. Naumann was quite an able and in- dustrious composer, but not one of genius. His songs tend to sound tearfully sentimental, and the Masonic ones are no exception. The collection also contains some short instrumental compositions which were probably used as ritual music.
A piece to be played on entering the lodge is in the form of a simple song with three recurring beats representing the Entered Apprentice's knocking. The three-fold handshake, with which the chain is broken, is represented by three dotted notes at the end. The idea of the chain is doubtlessly expressed in a piece characterized by chains of sus- pensions. After the publication of his song collection, Naumann wrote an opera, Osiris.
His chief biographer, Richard Englander, says that Naumann probably felt the need of stating his Masonic creed in a piece of large proportions. We shall return to this opera, first 38 produced in Dresden in , which anticipated the Magic Flute by ten years in its use of Masonic lore as the main theme. Ac- cording to Englander, Osiris was one of the few operas of the time whose dramatic content fully satisfied the standards of Gluck and Calzabigi. At the time Naumann was engaged in composing this opera, Lorenzo DaPonte, Mozart's librettist, was in Dresden staying with Mazzola, who wrote the text of Osiris.
Since DaPonte was helping Mazzola in his general dramatic work, it is quite probable that he also had a hand in the creation of Osiris. We do not know whether Mozart or Schikaneder heard about Osiris from DaPonte, or even from Mazzola himself, but we can safely look upon it as a forerunner of the Magic Flute.
This is evident in the tests which are reminiscent of Masonic ritual, opposition of good and evil, the priests choruses, etc. The most important Masonic characteristic of Osiris is the repeated appearance of a series of beats which function as rhythmic Leitmotifs.
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We should also mention a volume containing Masonic songs by Carl Friedrich Ebers , a composer from Mecklen- burg. The subjects of the songs are the king, the Master of the lodge, the lodge and its officers, members of the Craft, new ini- tiates, the charity box, the ladies, St. John's festival, etc. Like Naumann, Ebers uses Masonic rhythms. For example, in the song Der Hammer, the rhythm of the Entered Apprentice's knocks can be heard in the piano introduction. Both the music and the words are inept, although some of the poets, such as Anschutz, an actor 39 and member of the lodge "Apollo" in Leipzig, Dietner, Kern- dorf er, and Eberhard are quite well-known.
A large number of musical works composed for specific Masonic occasions were published in England and France as well as Ger- many and Austria. This is doubtless a vaudeville song adapted for Masonic uses. According to Cotte, music was frequently performed in the earliest French lodges, beginning in As in the Lire Magonne, the songs consist largely of vaudevilles and pontneup, but there were also some which had been especially composed for the occasion. One of the most important collections was made by one Jean Jacques Naudot, presumably the famous flutist who lived in Paris between and Tte manuscript of this collection has been pre- served by the Paris Conservatoire and has the title in French , "Notated songs of the very worshipful brotherhood of Free- masons, preceded by several pieces of poetry on the same subject, and a march.
The collection contains several original compositions, a male chorus for three voices even here the symbolic number three! One of the latter was transcribed for davecin by Michel Corrette, and the flutist Blavet arranged the Marcbe de la grande Loge de la Magonnerie for two flutes. As in Anglo-Saxon Masonry, great importance was attached to the marches played at French lodge meetings. Henri- Joseph Taskin composed several marches as well as other Masonic music In France, as in Austria, it was customary to perform can- 40 tatas at consecration ceremonies, and Louis Nicola Clerambault composed such a work, Les Francsmafons, in While he was certainly a member of the Craft, there is some doubt about the membership of Jean Philippe Rameau , France s foremost composer of the 18th century.
We know, how- ever, that several of his operas, including Zoroastre, are based on Masonic ideas. The Concerts de la Loge Olympique were founded by Masonry. These concerts were started in and open only to Masons. Performances took place within the framework of a Masonic ritual. The members of the orchestra appeared in embroidered suits with lace cuffs and wore ceremonial swords and cocked hats.
Queen Marie-Antoinette patronized these concerts, whose moving spirit was the famous violinist Jean Battiste Viotti Luigi Cherubini had his well-known cantata Amphyon performed there, and Haydn contributed six of his best symphonies. In a bowdlerized version of the Magic Flute was per- formed in Paris with the title Les mysteres d'Isis.
Its perpetrator, a Czech by the name of Wentzel Ludwig Lachnit, managed to strip the opera of all its wonderful and amusing elements. Papa- geno was turned into a shepherd named Bochoris, the Champagne Aria from Don Giovanni and an aria from La Clemenza di Tito were smuggled in as duets. Cotte observes that this opera had some influence on French Masonic composers, especially on Taskin. One of the best-known French Masonic songs, Chant des Matllets, is persistently but wrongly ascribed to Mozart, just as Freut euch des Lebens was always claimed for him in the England and America of In Germany and Austria they were especially welcomed into the lodges because their par- ticipation helped to create the solemn atmosphere necessary for the ceremonies, whose emphasis of aesthetic experience has always been primary.
We shall mention a few musicians who were members of the Austrian lodges at that time, without arranging them in any order of merit. Nothing further is known about him. Another member of this lodge was Carlo d'Ordonez, a musician who, according to Abafi, was born in Vienna in Hanslidk, in his Geschichte des Concertwesens, says that he was born in Spain, and that around he became registrar and later a secretary of the Landgericht. He was a profi- cient violinist and also composed symphonies and cantatas which were occasionally performed at the academies of the Tonkunstler- societal.
Both Hanslick and Abafi state that he was admitted as a member of the Imperial Court Chapel in Vienna in , but his name does not appear in the register. Some chamber music and a Singspiel musical comedy have been preserved. Paul Wranitzky was a member of the lodge "Zur gekronten Hoffnung. He played a part in the history of the Magic Flute and composed several Masonic songs. The "Crowned Hope" lodge could also count among its mem- bers the musicians Joseph Bartha, Vittorio Colombazzo other- wise unknown , the actor and singer Valentin Adamberger, who 42 performed Mozart's Masonic songs; the poet-laureate of the lodge, Franz Petran, a secular priest from Bohemia who wrote the words of Mozart's cantata Maurerfreude Masons joy, K.
The lodge's St. John's festival of was embel- lished by three songs with music by Wranitzky and words by Petran. One of Mozart's enemies was also a member of the Craft. Kozeludi was a member of the lodge "Zum Palmbaum" palm tree and later of "Zu den drei Adlern" three eagles. He had at one time tried to stir up Haydn against Mozart, and his hateful remarks at the premiere of La Clemenza di Tito in Prague made him unpopular with his Bohemian compatriots.
Even Beethoven did not escape his veno- mous opposition. Another interesting member of the "Palmbaum" lodge was Carl Leopold Rollig, an official of the court library and an excel- lent glass-harmonica player. He was cured of a serious illness by Cagliostro and otherwise became entangled in mystical affairs. Meissner reports that Rollig was on terms of intimate friendship with Johann Gottlieb Naumann. Johann Holzer, member of the lodge "Zur wahren Eintracht," wrote a number of songs and Masonic compositions. Some of the songs with piano accompaniment were published in , and some of these, in turn, appeared under the editorship of Irene Schlaffenberg in volume 54 of Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Oester- reich.
Very little is known about Holzer's life. In addition to twelve German songs, he left some chamber music works, now in the archive of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna. Anton Johann Holzer was employed at the Austrian war office. His col- league there, Joseph von Holzmeister, an amateur musician, de- livered the address to the new initiates at Haydn's initiation.
One, 1m Namen der Armen in the name of the poor , with words by Gottlieb Leon, beginning "Brothers, listen to the cries of the poor," is scored for two voices and cembalo accom- paniment. The music is gentle and slightly reminiscent of Mozart's 43 songs, though less formidable. The other song by Holzer is a setting of Ratschky's Gesellenreise Fellow Craft's journey , pub- lished in , which was also set to music by Mozart. Likewise for two voices and cembalo, it is designated as a march. Evidently it was actually performed at a ceremony.
One of the less praiseworthy Masonic compositions of Mozart's time was a circus-like pantomime, Adoniram's Tod t composed and conducted by one Brother Hyam, and performed by a company of dressage riders in April, A survival of the equestrian ballets of the 17th century, this "horse opera" does not contribute to the dignity of Masonic intellectual history. A collection of Masonic songs from this period includes com- positions by Brother Bauernjopel.
The composer was speaker of the lodge "Zur Bestandigkeit" constancy in Vienna, and it was said that he could say "a hundred stupid things a minute with a wise face. Three more songs from this period were performed on July 24, , at the St. John's festival of the lodge "Zu den drei Feuern" three fires in Vienna. The first of them is intended to be sung before dinner, giving thanks for the "gifts of Mother Earth.
The composer of these songs was Georg Benda, a member of the lodge in Altenburg, but at that time a resident of Vienna. The three songs are entitled "The St. Indeed, Mozart even sketched a setting of Gemmingen's Semiramis in the style of Benda's melodramas plays with music background. On Nov. Franz Xaver Hloschek and his son Anton 44 were the only musicians in the lodge "Zu den drei gekronten Saulen" three crowned pillars.
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A mem- ber of their lodge was the physician de Vignet who not only loved music but was also a generous friend to Mozart. On June 13, , he arranged a memorial concert for the benefit of Mozart's widow, in which his daughter and Mme. Duschek participated. In addition, we should mention the following Masonic musicians and artists belonging to Lodges with which Mozart had friendly relations. The musician Schmidt? Joseph Lodge of which Wenzel Himmelbauer, "traveling musi- cian," was a member. The latter was born in Bohemia, an excellent cellist who, together with Dittersdorf , was a member of the orches- tra of Count Grassalkowitz.
Schubart is quite enthusiastic about Himmelbauer's playing and his pleasant personality. Accord- ing to Eitner, he supposedly lived in Bern, Switzerland. Peter Graf, another "Tonkiinstler," belonged to the same Lodge. Johann Friedel, an actor of Schikaneder s theater, and the actor Karl L. Schmidt were members of the "Bestandigkeit," of which also Joseph Grassi, later Professor at the Kunstakademie in Dresden, was a member. It was this Grassi who participated in a pantomime in February, , choreographed by Mozart himself Sdienk, page It is known that Leopold Mo- zart was passed to the second degree on April 16 of that year.
Therefore it is highly probable that Wolfgang composed the song for that occasion, especially since he did not visit the lodge "Zur wahren Eintracht" between these two dates, and since prominent Masons were usually initiated there. As already indicated, Rat- schky's poem was also set to music by Holzer. It is remarkable that Holzer's setting was published in the Journal fur Freymaurer early in , at about the time that Mozart was composing his setting. Holzer's choice of harpsichord for accompaniment, and Mozart's of organ, indicate the contrasting characters of these two compositions.
While Holzer's rhythm and tempo are suitable for the ritual, which gives him no cause for special sentiment but is simply one step on the Mason's road, Mozart's song is gentler, and more solemn, perhaps a representation of homage to his old father. Joseph Franz von Ratschky , the poet, was one of the most famous writers of his day and a high-ranking civil servant. Sonnenfels had recommended him to Emperor Joseph and he ended his career as a Staatsrat.
In he wrote an essay on "The tolerance publicly granted to the order of Freemasons by Emperor Joseph II," and in the same year his poems were pub- lished by Brother Rudolf Graffer, in the first book printed on vellum in Vienna. Many brothers subscribed to it. It contains the poem Gesettenreise, which was later parodied as "Life's Journey" by D. Ratschky had a good sense of humor. A second song, with a poem by Brother Schittlersberg, was also set to music by Mozart K. In order to understand these words, one must realize that while Joseph gave the Freemasons permission to meet, he decreased the number of lodges in Vienna from eight to three.
Thus the lodges "Crowned Hope," "Charity," "St. Since the event took place in December, , we can assume that this is the time of the song's composition. It is scored for a solo voice, a three- part chorus, and organ accompaniment, and its beginning is slightly similar to the song of the three genii in the finale no. We see that Mozart was already beginning to use the ritual number three in the manner typical of the Magic Flute. A hymn for the dosing of the lodge, also dating from , is K. A translation of the text as it appears in the autograph follows. Solo Oh you, our new leaders, We thank you now for all your faith.
Oh lead us ever in the paths of virtue That all rejoice in the chain that ties us, The chain that binds us to better men, And giveth sweetness to life's chalice, Gives sweetness to the cup of life. Chorus The holy adjuration we also vow: To strive for perfection of our great temple. Solo And on the rungs of truth Let us approach the throne of wisdom That we may reach its holiness And that we of her crown may be worthy, If charity will drive out The jealousy of the profane.
The words of this hymn indicate that it was intended for the in- stallation of a new set of officers. Evidently both of these songs were composed for the same evening. Deutsch includes the texts of two more songs, Zur Eroffnung der Meisterloge for the opening of "Newly Crowned Hope" and Zum Schluss der Meisterarbeit, "by a brother of the lodge i. Thus these two songs, entitled Des Todes Werk the work of death and Vollbracht ist die Arbeit der Meister die work of the Masters is finished might be two lost compositions of Mozart's.
The occasion of their composition is uncertain. I suspect that they were performed at the memorial meeting of November 17 for the Duke of Mecklenburg and Count Esterhazy, at which the Masonic Funeral Music was also performed. The two songs are accompanied by figured bass, whose chords must be completed by the organist.
This is true of another Masonic song, K. Engl dates it from , a time when Mozart was already a Mason. The words have a Masonic ring: Most holy tie of brotherhood's deep friendship, Which equals the joy found in paradise. A true believer, yet not opposed To this world. This truth is comprehended, Yet kept secret. The style and flavor of this song are very similar to those of Gesettenreise, and point to the "Crowned Hope" lodge.
Einstein, like Kochel, accepts circumstantial evidence for the belief that Mozart wrote this song about , that is, in his Salzburg period. His reasoning is that Mozart wrote no figured-bass songs after , except for a parody, Die Alte the old woman, K. On the other hand, Wyzewa, St. Foix, and Abert are convinced that the song was composed after Mozart's initiation. We counter Einstein's argument by asserting that two later 48 songs, K. But if the song was indeed composed in , it would simply mean that young Mozart was already well acquainted with Masonry at the time.
According to Jahn, these are really studies for Masonic music, but Einstein thinks they were written for a hymnal which Archbishop Colloredo was planning in These hymns had already been composed by On April 20, , Mozart composed the cantata Maurerfreude Mason's joy. The words were written by Brother Petran for a meeting of the lodge "Zur gekronten Hoffnung," called because Ignaz von Born had just been honored by Emperor Joseph for his latest metallurgical discovery.
The secretary of the lodge, G. Bartsch, sent out a newsletter saying that the lodge had decided to meet and celebrate with Born, and to show him love and respect. The letter goes on to say: "Several songs were per- formed on this occasion, and also a cantata written by Brother Petran and set to music by our famous Brother Mozart of the very worshipful lodge 'Zur Wohltatigkeit. All profits from the sale of this work will be given to the poor, and we hope that you will do all you can to promote its sale in your neighborhood. One of them, Bei der Almosensammlung collection for alms , beginning "Worthy Masons, true brethren, now it is time to think of the poor," had words by Matolay, music by Wranitzky, both members of the "Crowned Hope" lodge.
It was sung by Adamberger, and the score was later published, with an engraving by Mansf eld, and sold for the benefit of the poor, Alfred Meissner, whose Rococobilder Rococo sketches is sup- posedly based on a diary of his grandfather's, A. Meissner, a member of the lodge "Zur Wahrheit und Einigkeit" truth and unity in Prague, says that this cantata was performed in Prague on the occasion of a visit by Mozart. As we have already said, Maurerfreude was first performed on April 20, , in the presence of Leopold Mozart.
But after-meeting dinners were usually given at the "Freemason casino" Cafe Jiingling, in the Leopoldstadt district of Vienna, then Untere Donaustrasse 5, now Praterstrasse 6. The original owner, Joseph Mayer, was a member of the lodge "St. Joseph" and his successor, Johann Jungling, belonged to the "Newly Crowned Hope," though at first as a serving brother. The score of the cantata, with piano accompaniment, was en- graved and published with a frontispiece depicting the Temple of Humanity standing in a classical landscape. The title of the cantata appears as an inscription on the temple, on whose right are two female figures as well as Ignaz von Born, in whose honor the cantata had been composed.
Born stands with his right hand on his breast and is represented as an elderly bearded man. One of the female figures is putting a wreath on his head, while the other, wearing a crown, holds his hand. The inscription reads: "Die Maurerfreude, a cantata sung on April 24, , in honor of our very worthy brother B. Mozart; published for the benefit of the poor; available in Vienna and in the best art and book stores in Germany.
Originally a Jesuit, he left the order after 16 months to study law at the University of Prague. After a tour of Europe he returned to Prague, devoting all his energies to the study of natural science and founding a "Society for the Study of Mathematics, National History, and Natural History. In , he wrote a detailed artide on the mysteries of the Egyptians in the Journal -fur Prey- maurer.
This, coupled with his unchallenged authority on all ethical and Masonic matters, made him into an almost legendary figure.
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Rightly or wrongly, it has been assumed that he was the model for the character of Sarastro in the Magic flute, but he did not live to see that opera performed. The work that led the Emperor to honor Born on the occasion mentioned above was published by Brother Christian Friedrich Wappler and was entitled Ueber das Anquicken der gold- und silberhaltigen Erze, Rohsteine, Schwarzkupfer und Huttenspeise.
It described an improved method of gold and silver mining which was introduced in all state mines by imperial decree. On this occa- sion the Emperor received Born and highly praised his work. Franz Graflfer, in his Wiener Memoiren und Dosenstucke, de- scribes a conversation between Born and the Emperor: "This is one of the most important discoveries of the century," says the Emperor.
It is already being used in Saxony and Sweden. And here is a letter which says that they are using it even in Mexico. Frank- lin, after all, was one of the most prominent Masons in North America as well as a great scientist. Let us return to the composition. Brother Petran, the poet, was priest to Count Thun. The tenor Adamberger, who sang the can- tata at the first performance, was the father of the famous actress Toni Adamberger who later became the bride of Theodor Korner.
The drawing for the beautiful engraving, by Sebastian Mansfeld, came from Ignaz Unterberger, and the work was printed by Pas- quale Artaria. All these men belonged to the lodge "Zur gekron- ten Hoffnung," as did Wenzel Tobias Epstein, who wrote the preface. Of Jewish descent, Epstein was renowned for his chess-playing and coin-collecting, and was eventually en- nobled and took the title von Ankersberg. Ignaz von Born rigidly adhered to his Masonic convictions.
In , when the elector of Bavaria, Carl Theodor, decreed that all civil servants and members of the Academy of Sciences must leave the Craft, Born immediately returned all his Bavarian diplomas. He declared that he was not only unrepentant but also proud to be a Mason. He asserted that members of the Craft were distinguished by being just, obedient to God, loyal to their country, and chari- table to their fellow-men. In spite of all this he later renounced Masonry, for reasons unknown, and resigned from the lodge.
On 51 April 27, , he wrote the following in Mozart's album, in Latin: "Sweet Apollo, who hast given thy art, thy gifts to our Mozart so that he may provide sounds with his strings to him who de- mands them, sounds which my hand also desires, sharp, deep, quick, slow, harmonious, plaintive, loud, soft sounds, blending without offense, bring it about that his pleasing lyre may sound with his music for many happy days, and grant the harmony of a pleasant fate. The music has been arranged for soprano, tenor, alto, bass, trumpets, and drums. Possibly this Masonic composition was used to fight Masonic ideas after the collapse of the movement in Bavaria, for the new words begin: "See how the power of this heresy is disappearing.
Therefore, the main portion is a long tenor solo, the beginning of which is in the style of an Italian concert aria. Then follows a recitative beginning, "See how wisdom and virtue turn with favor to the son of Masons," and an accompanied andante recitative: "Take, beloved, this crown from the hands of our eldest son, from Joseph.
This is the greatest joy of Masons, yes, this is the triumph of Masonry. Again the dotted eights present Masonic rhythms. The allegro movement whkh follows is for tenor solo, two tenors, and bass. It can be performed by a chorus or soloists but, if we consider the small number of lodge members, and especially the few good voices, the possibility of a performance by only three singers is very great.
As we shall see, Schikaneder was not a member of that! We may assume that Mozart, with whom he was working on the Magic Flute, had been asked to furnish the cantata. In any case, Lewis is mistaken in naming Schikaneder among the outstanding memfoers of this lodge. The cantata is the last work completed by 52 Mozart and also the last entry in his own handwritten list of com- positions. It was published in by Joseph Hraschansky, a for- mer member of the "True Harmony" lodge.
It had, as an appen- dix, the song "For the closing of the lodge" "Let us then with hands united. The first edition significantly calls this work "Mozart's last masterpiece. We must assume that this appendix, which in time became very popular, was not by Mozart at all, but possibly according to some scholars by Michael Haydn. It has now become the Austrian national anthem. The Wiener Zeitung printed the following announcement on January 25, "Admiration and gratitude to the departed Mozart induced a humanitarian society to publish a work by this great artist for the benefit of his widow and orphans, who are in need of help.
One can justly call it his swan song. Composed with his unique talent, it was first conducted by him two days before his final illness for his closest friends. It is a cantata for the con- secration of the Masonic lodge in Vienna, and the words are the work of a member of that lodge. Then an instrumental introduction, with brilliant passages for the flutes and violins, leads us into a festive and exultant mood. The following solos begin with imitation; their contrapuntal style is characteristic of Mozart's more serious Masonic compositions: Make this place a holy temple By the bond of brotherhood, And brothers, all within your hearts, This day our temple sanctify.
We shall see again in the Magic Flute that Mozart frequently uses contrapuntal devices to accompany points of climax and ten- sion with Masonic significance. The chorus now sings a reprise of 53 its opening number, f ollowed by a recitative surely sung by Adam- berger: For the first time, noble brothers, We are met in this great seat of virtue and wisdom and truth, We consecrate ourselves to the sanctity of our labor, Which is to discover for ourselves the great mysterious truth.
Joyful are all brethren on this day, This happy day of holy dedication By which the brotherhood is bound in unity. Let us be thankful that human kindness Reigns among men once again upon earth. Sweet will be the memories of this place Where every brother's heart speaks Of what he was and what he is, And what, by his endeavors, can become. He learns by example, shielded and cared for by brotherly love. It is here that there reigns the holiest, The chief, the greatest of all virtues, Charity, enthroned in solemn splendor. It is possible that the rather peculiar ending of this recitative may be Schikaneder's compliment to the lodge "Zur Wohltatig- keit" charity , to which Mozart belonged.
The recitative is followed by a tenor aria, certainly also sung by Adamberger: Generously the godhead omnipotent Not in noise and pomp and clamor The words are by a merchant from Hamburg, Franz Heinrich Ziegenhagen, who, under the influence of Rousseau and the En- cyclopedists, made several attempts at educational reform.
In a pamphlet, "Science of the Proper Relationships to Crea- tion. With a view to founding a colony near Strasbourg, based on his principles, he desired to meet parents who wanted their children to devote them- selves to agriculture. To us he sounds like a rationalist crank of the worst kind. He wished to propagate his ideas by aesthetic means and asked Chodowiedei for eight engravings and Mozart for a suitable song.
Ziegenhagen was himself a Mason and mem- ber of the lodge "Zu den drei Schliisseln" three keys in Regens- burg indicating that he was probably a friend of Schikaneder's, who may have referred him to Mozart. The manuscript is now in the university library of Uppsala, where it was taken, together with sketches for the Magic Flute, by Silverstolpe at the beginning of the 19th century. It was orchestrated by the inventor of the "orchestrion," Thomas Anton Kunz.
Origin and early history
Ziegenhagen's science of relationships was to teach mankind to find a way to happiness by doing away with religion in favor of a natural law arising out of men's "natural" relations to one an- other and to nature. I speak especially of the Jews, whose condition no humanitarian can observe without pity. They would free themselves from the astrological superstitions of the Talmud and the laws of their prophets. This attitude is illustrated in an engrav- ing on the title page of the cantata, which represents a kind of Masonic lodge, with the Master in the right foreground.
In the middle stands a deformed Jewish man, possibly representing Moses Mendelssohn. There is a group of ministers in the corner repre- 55 senting various religions, among them a Rabbi; and the inscription on the temple says: "Place yourselves in the proper relationship to each other and to the rest of creation. It is un- likely that Mozart knew the contents of this pamphlet since it was published after his death.
Jahn states that there is no such thing as a Masonic style in music. But for this cantata Mozart again adopted the special at- mosphere used in all his Masonic compositions, a flavor which we may designate as his "humanitarian style. That Mo- zart was definitely thinking of Freemasonry when he composed it can be seen by the dotted rhythms of the piano accompaniment, by the tenor part, but most clearly in the melody which recalls one of the priests' scenes from the Magic Flute. The words un- doubtedly were also influenced by Masonry.
One passage, "Let strength and beauty be your aim and brightness of intellect your honor," indicates the "Three Lesser Lights" of Freemasonry, wis- dom, strength, and beauty. Accord- ing to Kochel, it was begun in , before Mozart became a Mason, but it was never completed. The humanitarian style, well- developed as it appears in his later Masonic compositions, is not yet evident Nevertheless this work clearly shows Mozart's pre- occupation with Masonic and humanitarian ideas in the years before joining the lodge.
The spirit of the cantata is related to that of Gebler's King Thomas. The sun worship of the Egyptians, with which Mozart was acquainted, is expressed by these words: "Oh mighty one, without thee we could not live. From thee comes fertility, warmth, and light. But its use of a large ensemble, with oboes, horns, string quartet, bassoon, and mixed chorus may have made its performance in the lodge impractical.
The Masonic Funeral Music for orchestra, K. It was written around November 10, , a year after Mozart's initiation, and per- formed at the Lodge of Mourning honoring two famous Masons, Count Esterhazy and the Duke of Mecklenburg. Esterhazy was a highly esteemed Hungarian nobleman, a Privy Councillor and high official in the government department dealing with Hungarian and Transylvanian matters, and a member of the "Crowned Hope" lodge.
The number of performers required for this piece gives an indication of the importance Mozart attached to it. It is scored for string quartet, two oboes, a clarinet, three basset- horns, two horns in E flat and C, and a contra-bassoon. The low, threatening notes of the winds anticipate the serious mood. Several chords serve as an introduction, then a plaintive, rhapsodic melody is played by the solo violin. This juxtaposition of winds and strings corresponds to the dialectic of life and inexorable death.
Thus, the melody of the violin, which never really takes the firm shape of a song, is confronted by the relent- less cantus firmus of the woodwinds. The latter is not taken verbatim from Roman Catholic liturgy but possibly from the He- brew psalms. It must be a very ancient melody, for it is found in Persian and Italian Jewish songs.
The string quartet, as a symbol of man struggling against his fate, fights against this cantus firmus, which represents the unalter- able downfall of the individual. The dotted rhythms in the bass accompany the sobbing of the strings which, towards the middle of the piece, rear up in sudden anguish and then return to a gentle but serious lament. This is a true picture of death which the Mason Mozart carried in his mind when he wrote to his father for the last time on April 4, I should point out that Alfred Ein- stein, probably the foremost Mozart scholar of the 20th century, 57 was not a Mason; nor was Otto Erich Deutsdbu Yet Einstein at- tached far greater importance to the Masonic influences in Mo- zart's life and work than had ever been done before.
One of Mozart's most important works is the great symphony in E flat, L , which was finished on June 26, Einstein wrote about it in his classic book, Mozart, his Character, his Work p. E-flat major is the key of the trio Mozart dedicated to his friend and helper, Puchberg. It is the key of Die Zauberflote. And just as in the overture to the work the adept knocks at the gate and waits anxiously in the dark, so he does here again, until the six-four chord brings the light. The unusual song-theme of the Allegro, too, is full of those 'ties' that symbolize the brotherhood of Free- masons. While the latter are of a strictly functional character, Mozart's are full of the Masonic spirit Not that Mozart was a model Mason.
Full text of "MOZART AND MASONARY"
But instinctively he came as dose as anyone to understanding the most fundamental ideas of Freemasonry which, after all, are symbols. All the com- positions by Naumann, Scheibe, B. Weber, Ambrosch, Franz, Hurka, and all the rest are idle chatter compared to a few bars of Mozart's Masonic music To be sure, the older pieces were usually adapted from tunes already in existence just as the melodies from the Magic Flute were to be adapted for Masonic songs quite soon after their creation.
In , Freimaurerlieder mit Melodien, three volumes edited by Boheim and printed by G. Starcke in Berlin, appeared with some material from the Magic Flute, addi- tional evidence that this opera was already then assumed to be Masonic. But die gentle and yet firm quality of Mozart's Masonic style 58 was probably the greatest attraction. Para- doxically, it was the station identification of the largest German broadcasting station under the Nazis.
It was published with an English text by Willig in Philadelphia between and The second song in Boheim's collection, a song of consecration, is sung to the music of Sarastro's aria. Heuss described this kind of music in an essay, Die Humanitats- melodien im Fidelia humanitarian melodies in Fidelio. He calls it "quietly glowing with metaphysical warmth" and points out that Beethoven also used this style in his younger days. To be sure, Mozart was already approaching it before he became a Mason.
But I still believe that the experience of Freemasonry was of the greatest importance in the development of this style, and that the Magic Flute was so successful because in it the humani- tarian style was perfected. There is no doubt that many works of Beethoven as well as those of the Romantic composers are based on this humanitarian style. Does one need to show a level of magical ability as along with wisdom and how is this assessed? David Harrison: Not magical ability, but an ability to understand how one can improve himself; you act out a role in a moralistic play, so you move from apprentice to Master, and you experience how through work, you can improve upon oneself as a human being, moralistically and educationally.
There are however many Freemasons who wanted more and saw Freemasonry as a gateway to the Divine, to understand more about the hidden mysteries of nature and science and in my latest book The Lost Rites and Rituals of Freemasonry , some Freemasons took a step further in their search for God. Falcon Books: In what ways does Freemasonry benefit society? I believe in the age of austerity we have entered, Freemasonry certainly assists in filling the holes left by government, especially with charity to hospitals and even local education.
Falcon Books: How much do you feel ideologies have changed over the centuries as it has developed and grown? David Harrison: Freemasonry has indeed changed over the centuries; its ritual has changed and the people who have joined are changing along with the world around them. The Freemasons of today are different to the Freemasons of the eighteenth century, for example they dress differently and dine differently, and they are worlds apart in the sense of technology, but I think they have the same fundamental needs—to care for their family, fellow brethren and society as a whole.
Falcon Books: What is your vision for the future of Freemasonry? Freemasonry has always changed and adapted and I believe it is beginning to change again to attract new young people. Falcon Books: I wonder if you tell us about your new title The Lost Rites and Rituals of Freemasonry and what can we expect from this book? The book examines the lost rites of Freemasonry, in particular the mysterious and influential Rites created on continental Europe during the eighteenth century by the likes of Martinez Pasqually, Count Cagliostro and Baron Von Hund.
Charismatic figures such as Jean-Baptiste Willermoz, an enigmatic French Mason of the eighteenth century that forged the Rectified Rite out of the teachings of Pasqually and the reorganised Rite of Strict Observance will also be discussed. The eighteenth century saw a number of Masonic Rites developing in France, Germany and Russia, and though some of these Rites ceased to exist by the close of the century, the Rectified Scottish Rite, though changed, still survives today.
Other influential figures such as Louis-Claude de Saint Martin and Emanuel Swedenborg are examined, and the influence that these charismatic figures had on the occult revival and later Masonic organisations such as Martinism and the Swedenborgian Rite are analysed in depth. Lost English Rites and rituals are also covered in detail, along with the lost symbolism that vanished after the union of the Antients and the Moderns in David Harrison.